Temporal and Kafka


I’m new to Temporal but find it very interesting. We are looking at using it for the next rollout of our platform scheduled for end of year so I’d like to get an idea of what’s the best way to architect it.

  1. We have ‘spikes’ in demand sometimes - for example an influx of leads for which we need to perform a set of workflow steps. Would it be recommended to put Kafka as an incoming queue so we can handle spikes?
  2. Per-tenant (a tenant is a customer - an outside organization or agency) we sometimes need to limit the number of leads flowing through the workflow at a given time. Does this mean I need to create a long-running workflow per tenant and send it leads through signals? Or should we use per-lead workflows and would there be some way to manage them?
  3. For rate-limited tasks like sending emails we are thinking of making an async activity and pushing them onto an outbound Kafka queue. Is there a way to do this directly in Temporal instead?

The architecture we are thinking off looks like this:

(External Workflow Triggers) -> Inbound Kafka Queue
                                      Temporal ---- (listens on Kafka and start workflow for each trigger)
                               Outbound Kafka Queue

Any inputs/suggestions would be appreciated. It would help us decide if Temporal is a good fit and how best to use it going forward.


  1. It depends on the maximum rate you want to handle. Giving the number of boxes you would need for a Kafka cluster I wouldn’t be surprised that having Temporal cluster that can sustain the peak workflow start load is simpler and cheaper. What is the maximum start workflow rate you are targeting?
  2. Yes, the simplest implementation would be to have a workflow per tenant.
  3. No need for Kafka here. Use a separate activity task queue which already supports throttling limit.
  1. The maximum rate we are targeting is 10,000 events/minute. This includes tracking activities like web clicks, email opens, etc
  2. Ah that’s what I thought as well. How could we rate-limit the number of workflow instances per tenant in this case?
  3. Is there some documentation on how to use the task queue? I read https://docs.temporal.io/docs/java-implementing-workflows but what I understood was there was a task queue name I could provide when invoking an activity.

Thank you for your helpful replies @maxim :heart:

To provide more detail on our requirement:

  1. 10,000 events/minute
  2. Around 4 Million Send events daily (upto 20% surge sometimes) [ outgoing activity ]
  3. 1000 Tenants of varying loads (some very small, some large)
  4. 10-30 different workflows can be triggered per tenant. Each workflow has 3-5 actions

You are welcome!

  1. It is about 200 requests a second. It is a pretty reasonable rate for Temporal to handle. So no need for Kafka here.
  2. Temporal guarantees the uniqueness of workflows by their ID. So just use tenantId as workflowId and only one instance per tenant will be created.
  3. Basically, when you start a worker object you pass the task queue name as a parameter to the factory method. Then when you schedule activity you would need to pass that name.

The worker initialization code:

    Worker worker = factory.newWorker(EMAIL_QUEUE);

Workflow code:

    EmailActivities activities =

Got it. Excited to try out your suggestions @maxim ! Temporal looks like an amazing solution.

Thanks again! Have a good WE.


Consider using SignalWithStart to start per tenant workflows. It sends a signal to a workflow starting it if it is not running. It eliminates need to decide which event has to start the workflow.

The SignalWithStart codefrom moneybatch sample:

    AccountTransferWorkflow transferWorkflow =
        workflowClient.newWorkflowStub(AccountTransferWorkflow.class, options);
    // Signal with start sends a signal to a workflow starting it if not yet running
    BatchRequest request = workflowClient.newSignalWithStartRequest();
    request.add(transferWorkflow::deposit, to, BATCH_SIZE);
    request.add(transferWorkflow::withdraw, from, reference, amountCents);

where AccountTransferWorklfow is defined as:

public interface AccountTransferWorkflow {

  void deposit(String toAccountId, int batchSize);

  void withdraw(String fromAccountId, String referenceId, int amountCents);

  int getBalance();

  int getCount();

Trying to wrap my head around this correctly. So the workflow would look like:

public void tenantWorkflow() {
    while(pendingEvent.length > 0) {
        current = pending.pop()
        workflowFound = findWorkflowFor(tenant, current)
        runChildWorkflow(workflowFound, current)

public void addEvent(Lead lead, Event event) {
      pendingEvents.add(new EventWrapper(lead, event))

And the code that handles the event would start/signal this workflow using signalWithStart() as shown in the moneybatch sample. Is that right?

Then we add rate limiting code to the main tenantWorkflow() method keeping track of the times each child workflow was launched and number of pending events.

Your code and design look good to me.

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